Category:Virtual Reality

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Not to be confused with Spread Eagle Cross the Block.

Researchers with the European Space Agency in Darmstadt, Germany, exploring virtual reality for controlling planetary rovers and satellites in orbit

Virtual reality (VR) is a computer technology that uses virtual reality headsets or multi-projected environments, sometimes in combination with physical environments or props, to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that simulate a user's physical presence in a virtual or imaginary environment. A person using virtual reality equipment is able to "look around" the artificial world, and with high quality VR move around in it and interact with virtual features or items. The effect is commonly created by VR headsets consisting of a head-mounted display with a small screen in front of the eyes, but can also be created through specially designed rooms with multiple large screens.

VR systems that include transmission of vibrations and other sensations to the user through a game controller or other devices are known as haptic technology or haptic systems. This tactile information is generally known as force feedback in medical, video gaming and military training applications. Virtual reality also refers to remote communication environments which provide a virtual presence of users with through telepresence and telexistence or the use of a virtual artifact (VA). The immersive environment can be similar to the real world in order to create a lifelike experience grounded in reality or sci-fi. Augmented reality systems may also be considered a form of VR that layers virtual information over a live camera feed into a headset, or through a smartphone or tablet device.

Deep in Time

Look for this file: "Linux kernel and gaming input-output latency.svg"

Paramount for the sensation of immersion into virtual reality are a high frame rate (at least 95 fps), as well as a low latency. Furthermore, a pixel persistence lower than 3 milliseconds is required, because if not, users will feel sick when moving their head around.

In 1938, Antonin Artaud described the illusory nature of characters and objects in the theatre as Réalité virtuelle - "la réalité virtuelle" - in a collection of essays, Le Théâtre et son double". The English translation of this book, published in 1958 as The Theater and its Double,[1] is the earliest published use of the term "virtual reality". The term "artificial reality", coined by Myron Krueger has been in use since the 1970s. The term "virtual reality" was used in The Judas Mandala, a 1982 science fiction novel by Damien Broderick.

Virtual Reality Industry research report is a meticulous investigation of current scenario of the market, which covers several market dynamics. The Global market research report is a resource, which provides current as well as upcoming technical and financial details of the industry.

"Virtual" has had the meaning "being something in essence or effect, though not actually or in fact" since the mid-1400s, "...probably via sense of "capable of producing a certain effect" (early 1400s)".[2] The term "virtual" has been used in the computer sense of "not physically existing but made to appear by software" since 1959.[2]

A "cyberspace" is a networked virtual reality.[3]

Virtual reality shares some elements with "augmented reality" (or AR).[4] AR is a type of virtual reality technology that blends what the user sees in their real surroundings with digital content generated by computer software. The additional software-generated images with the virtual scene typically enhance how the real surroundings look in some way. Some AR systems use a camera to capture the user's surroundings or some type of display screen which the user looks at (e.g., Microsoft's HoloLens, Magic Leap).


The Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML), first introduced in 1994, was intended for the development of "virtual worlds" without dependency on headsets.[5] The Web3D consortium was subsequently founded in 1997 for the development of industry standards for web-based 3D graphics. The consortium subsequently developed X3D from the VRML framework as an archival, open-source standard for web-based distribution of VR content.[6]

All modern VR displays are based on technology developed for smartphones including: gyroscopes and motion sensors for tracking head, hand, and body positions; small HD screens for stereoscopic displays; and small, lightweight and fast processors.

These components led to relative affordability for independent VR developers, and lead to the 2012 Oculus Rift kickstarter offering the first independently developed VR headset.[7]

Independent production of VR images and video has increased by the development of omnidirectional cameras, also known as 360-degree cameras or VR cameras, that have the ability to record in all directions, although at low-resolutions or in highly compressed formats for online streaming.[8] In contrast, photogrammetry is increasingly used to combine several high-resolution photographs for the creation of detailed 3D objects and environments in VR applications.[9][10]



Video games

PlayStation VR headset used in video games
A person wearing haptic feedback devices, which enable him to feel elements in the virtual world.

Several virtual reality head mounted displays (HMD) were released for gaming during the early-mid 1990s. These included the Virtual Boy developed by Nintendo, the iGlasses developed by Virtual I-O, the Cybermaxx developed by Victormaxx and the VFX1 Headgear developed by Forte Technologies. Other modern examples of narrow VR for gaming include the Wii Remote, the Kinect, and the PlayStation Move/PlayStation Eye, all of which track and send motion input of the players to the game console somewhat accurately.

Commercial tethered headsets released for VR gaming include the Oculus Rift and the HTC Vive.[11]

Other systems include Sony's PlayStation VR, requiring a PlayStation instead of a PC to run; the StarVR; FOVE;[12] and the Magic Leap.[7]

Following the widespread release of commercial VR headsets in the mid-2010s, several VR-specific and VR versions of popular videogames have been released. Guild Software's Vendetta Online was widely reported as the first MMORPG to support the Oculus Rift,[13][14] making it potentially the first persistent online world with native support for a consumer virtual reality headset. Since 2013, there have been several virtual reality devices that seek to enter the market to complement Oculus Rift to enhance the game experience. One, Virtuix Omni, is based on the ability to move in a three dimensional environment through an omnidirectional treadmill. On April 27, 2016, Mojang announced that the popular sandbox video game Minecraft]was playable on the Samsung Gear VR aka Gear VR.[15] A separate version was released to the Oculus Store for use with the Gear VR, similar to the Pocket Edition of Minecraft.

Some companies are adapting VR for fitness by using gamification concepts to encourage exercise.[16] others use an AR headset in combination with a lightsaber for a Star Wars augmented reality game [17]

Cinema and entertainment

Films produced for VR permit the audience to view a 360 degree environment in every scene. Pornographic studios such as Naughty America have applied VR into their products since late 2015 or early 2016. The clips and videos are shot from an angle that resembles POV-style porn.[18][19]

In September 2016, two announcements were made for broadcast of sporting events in VR. Agon announced that the upcoming World Chess Championship match between Magnus Carlsen and Sergey Karjakin, scheduled for that November, would be "the first in any sport to be broadcast in 360-degree virtual reality."[20] This title was taken by Fox Sports VR, a series of virtual reality broadcasts consisting mainly of Fox College Football broadcasts. The telecasts (which use roughly 180 degrees of rotation) were made available through smartphone apps and head-mounted displays, through a TV Everywhere paywall. The first VR telecast took place September 17.[21][22]

Since 2015, virtual reality has been installed onto a number of roller coasters and theme parks, including Galactica (roller coaster at Alton Towers, The New Revolution (roller coaster) at Six Flags Magic Mountain and Alpenexpress at Europapark, amongst others. The Void is a virtual reality theme park in Pleasant Grove, Utah that has attractions where, by using virtual reality, AR and customized mechanical rooms, an illusion of tangible reality is created by the use of multiple senses.[7]

Social science and psychology

Virtual reality offers social scientists and psychologists a cost-effective tool to study and replicate interactions in a controlled environment. In addition, virtual reality enables a new form of perspective-taking by allowing an individual to embody the form of a virtual avatar. Research in this area suggests that embodying another being presents a very different experience from solely imagining one's self as a form.[23] Researchers have used the immersion of virtual reality to investigate how digital stimuli can alter human perception, emotion and physiological state, and how it has transformed social interaction, in addition to studying how digital interaction can enact social change in the physical world.

Altering perception, emotion and physiological state

Studies have considered how the form we take in virtual reality can affect our perception and actions. One study suggests that embodying the body of a young child can influence perception of object sizes such that objects are perceived as being much larger than if the objects were perceived by an individual embodying an adult body.[24] Similarly, another study has found that Caucasian individuals who embodied the form of a dark-skinned avatar performed a drumming task with a more varied style than when they were represented by a pair of white-shaded hands and in comparison to individuals who embodied a light-skin avatar.[25] As a whole, these works suggest that immersive virtual reality can create body-transfer illusions capable of influencing how humans respond to different circumstances.

Research exploring perception, emotions and physiological response within virtual reality suggest that controlled virtual environments can alter how a person feels or responds to stimuli.  For example, a controlled virtual environment of a park coupled with a strong perceived feeling of presence cause an individual to feel anxious or relaxed.[26] Similarly, simulated driving through areas of darkness in a virtual tunnel can induce a fear response in humans.[27] Social interaction with virtual characters in a virtual environment has been shown to produce physiological responses such as changes in heart rate and galvanic skin response.[28] Individuals with high levels of social anxiety were found to have larger changes in heart rate than their more socially confident counterparts.[28]

The sense of presence in virtual reality is also linked to the triggering of emotional and physiological response. Research suggests that a strong presence can facilitate emotional response, and this emotional response can further increase one's feeling of presence.[26] Similarly, breaks in presence (or a loss in the sense of presence) can cause physiological changes.[28]

Understanding bias and stereotypes

Researchers have used embodied perspective-taking in virtual reality to explore whether changing a person's self-representation may help in reducing bias against particular social groups.  However, the nature of the relationship between embodiment and implicit bias is not yet clear as studies have demonstrated contrasting effects. Individuals who embodied the avatars of old people have demonstrated significant reduction in negative stereotyping of the elderly when compared with individuals placed in avatars of young people.[29] Similarly, light-skinned individuals placed in avatars with a dark body have shown a reduction in their implicit racial bias.[30] However, other research has shown individuals taking the form of a Black avatar had higher levels of implicit racial bias favoring Whites after leaving the virtual environment than individuals who were embodied as White avatars.[23]

Healthcare and clinical therapies

According to a recent report from Goldman Sachs, healthcare could be one of the next markets that VR/AR disrupts.[31] Already, VR devices are being used in clinical therapy, and the results are significant.

Anxiety disorder treatment

Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is a form of exposure therapy for treating anxiety disorders such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and phobias. Studies have indicated that when VRET is combined with other forms of behavioral therapy, patients experience a reduction of symptoms.[32][33] In some cases, patients no longer meet the DSM-V criteria for PTSD after a series of treatments with VRET.[34]

Pain management

Immersive VR has been studied for acute pain management, on the theory that it may distract people, reducing their experience of pain.[35][36] Researchers theorize that immersive VR helps with pain reduction by distracting the mind and flooding sensories with a positive experience.[36][37][38]

Education and training

U.S. Navy personnel using a VR parachute training simulator.

VR is used to provide learners with a virtual environment where they can develop their skills without the real-world consequences of failing. It has also been used and studied in primary education. For example, in Japan's online high school ("N High School") VR plays a major role in education. Even the school's opening ceremony was a virtual experience for 73 of the students: they received headsets, which were connected to the campus hundreds of miles away – so they got to listen to the principal's opening speech without having to travel so far. According to the school's workers, they wanted to give the students a chance to experience VR technology, before having to use it "live" as part of their education.[39]

Military uses

Thomas A. Furness III was one of the first to develop the use of VR for military training when, in 1982, he presented the Air Force with a working model of his virtual flight simulator the Visually Coupled Airborne Systems Simulator (VCASS).[citation needed] The second phase of his project, which he called the "Super Cockpit", was even more advanced, with high resolution graphics (for the time) and a responsive display.[citation needed] Furness III is often credited as a pioneer in virtual reality for this research.[40] The Ministry of Defense in the United Kingdom has been using VR in military training since the 1980s.[41] The United States military announced the Dismounted Soldier Training System in 2012.[42] It was cited as the first fully immersive military VR training system.[43]

Space training

NASA has used VR technology for twenty years.[44] Most notable is their use of immersive VR to train astronauts while they are still on Earth. Such applications of VR simulations include exposure to zero-gravity work environments and training on how to spacewalk.[45][46] Astronauts can even simulate what it is like to work with tools in space while using low cost 3D printed mock up tools.[47]

Flight and vehicular applications

A headscreen-wearing soldier sits at a gunner station while learning in a Virtual Training Suite.

Flight simulators are a form of VR pilot training. They can range from a fully enclosed module to a series of computer monitors providing the pilot's point of view.[48] By the same token, virtual driving simulations are used to train tank drivers on the basics before allowing them to operate the real vehicle.[49] Similar principles are applied in truck driving simulators for specialized vehicles such as firetrucks. As these drivers often have less opportunity for real-world experience, VR training provides additional training time.[50]

Medical training

VR technology has many useful applications in the medical field.[51] Simulated surgeries allow surgeons to practice their technical skills without any risk to patients. Numerous studies have shown that physicians who receive surgical training via VR simulations improve dexterity and performance in the operating room significantly more than control groups.[52][53][54] Through VR, medical students and novice surgeons have the ability to view and experience complex surgeries without stepping into the operating room. On April 14, 2016, Shafi Ahmed was the first surgeon to broadcast an operation in virtual reality; viewers followed the surgery in real time from the surgeon's perspective.[55] The VR technology allowed viewers to explore the full range of activities in the operating room as it was streamed by a 4K 360fly camera.[56]

Fine arts

David Em was the first fine artist to create navigable virtual worlds in the 1970s. His early work was done on mainframes at Information International, Inc., Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology. Jeffrey Shaw explored the potential of VR in fine arts with early works like Legible City (1989), Virtual Museum (1991), and Golden Calf (1994).

Virtopia was the first VR Artwork to be premièred at a film festival. Created by artist/researcher Jacquelyn Ford Morie with researcher Mike Goslin, it debuted at the 1992 Florida Film Festival. Subsequent screenings of a more developed version of the project were at the 1993 Florida Film Festival and at SIGGRAPH 1994's emerging tech venue, The Edge. Morie was one of the first artists to focus on emotional content in VR experiences.

Canadian artist Char Davies created immersive VR art pieces Osmose (1995) and Ephémère (1998). Maurice Benayoun's work introduced metaphorical, philosophical or political content, combining VR, network, generation and intelligent agents, in works like Is God Flat? (1994), "Is the Devil Curved?" (1995), The Tunnel under the Atlantic (1995), and World Skin, a Photo Safari in the Land of War (1997).

Other pioneering artists working in VR have include Knowbotic Research, Rebecca Allen and Perry Hoberman. In 2015, futurist Keram Malicki-Sánchez created the FIVARS Festival of International Virtual & Augmented Reality Stories the first Virtual and Augmented Reality showcase dedicated wholly to narrative forms endemic to spatialized media. Drawing from an international pool of sources, the festival was responsible for the publication and distribution of many notable pieces, including Adam Cosco's "Knives," "SONAR 360," and "Pearl" among others. In 2016, the first project in Poland called The Abakanowicz Art Room was realized – it was documentation of the art office Magdalena Abakanowicz made by Jarosław Pijarowski and Paweł Komorowski.

Some museums have begun making some of their content virtual reality accessible including the British Museum and the Guggenheim


The use of 3D computer-aided design (CAD) data was limited by 2D monitors and paper printouts until the mid-to-late 1990s, when video projectors, 3D tracking, and computer technology enabled a renaissance in the use 3D CAD data in virtual reality environments. With the use of active shutter glasses and multi-surface projection units immersive engineering was made possible by companies like VRcom and IC.IDO. Virtual reality has been used in automotive, aerospace, and ground transportation original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in their product engineering and manufacturing engineering . Virtual reality adds more dimensions to virtual prototyping, product building, assembly, service, performance use-cases. This enables engineers from different disciplines to view their design as its final product. Engineers can view the virtual bridge, building or other structure from any angle. As well, some computer models allow engineers to test their structure's resistance to winds, weight, and other elements. Immersive VR engineering systems enable engineers to see virtual prototypes prior to the availability of any physical prototypes.

Virtual reality in occupational safety and health

VR simulates real workplaces for occupational safety and health purposes. Information and projection technology are used to produce a virtual, three-dimensional, dynamic work environment. Within work scenarios for example some parts of a machine move of their own accord while others can be moved by human operators. Perspective, angle of view, and acoustic and haptic properties change according to where the person is standing and how he or she moves relative to the environment. VR technology allows human information processing close to real life situations. VR enables all phases of a product life cycle, from design, through use, up to disposal, to be simulated, analysed and optimised. VR can be used for OSH purposes to:

  • Review and improve the usability of products and processes whilst their development and design are still in progress. This enables errors in development and the need for subsequent modifications to be avoided.
  • Systematically and empirically review design solutions for the human-system interfaces and their influence upon human behaviour. This reduces the need for physical modifications to machinery, and for extensive field studies.
  • Safely test potentially hazardous products, processes and safety concepts. This avoids actual hazards during the study of human-system interaction.
  • Identify cause-effect relationships following accidents on and involving products. This saves material, personnel, time and financial outlay associated with in-situ testing.

Heritage and archaeology

The first use of a VR presentation in a heritage application was in 1994, when a museum visitor interpretation provided an interactive "walk-through" of a 3D reconstruction of Dudley Castle in England as it was in 1550. This consisted of a computer controlled laserdisc-based system designed by British-based engineer Colin Johnson. The system was featured in a conference held by the British Museum in November 1994, and in the subsequent technical paper, Imaging the Past – Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology.[57] Virtual reality enables heritage sites to be recreated extremely accurately, so that the recreations can be published in various media.[58] The original sites are often inaccessible to the public or, due to the poor state of their preservation, hard to picture.[59] This technology can be used to develop virtual replicas of caves, natural environment, old towns, monuments, sculptures and archaeological elements.[60]

Architectural and urban design

A visitor at Mozilla Berlin Hackshibition trying Oculus Rift virtual reality experience on Firefox.

One of the first recorded uses of virtual reality in architecture was in the late 1980s when the University of North Carolina modeled its Sitterman Hall, home of its computer science department, in a virtual environment.[61]

A land development plan using Prefurbia, a 4th generation design system.

By 2010, VR programs were developed for urban regeneration, planning and transportation projects.[62]

Music and concerts

Virtual Reality
Assembled Google Cardboard VR

VR has the possibility of changing how we view live music[63] by allowing the audience to be right up front their band or to attend virtual concerts like Coachella.[64] Virtual reality can also transform music videos by making them more intense and powerful.[65] Music visualization also has the potential to be changed by VR with multiple apps being created for the Oculus and the HTC Vive although some people dubious as to how popular these will be.[66] Virtual reality is also used in visual music applications.[67]

On May 3, 2016, Norwegian pop band a-ha gave a multimedia performance in collaboration with Void, a Norwegian computational design studio. The stereoscopic VR-experience was made available for Android users directly through a YouTube app and also made available for iPhone users and other platforms.[68][69][70]


Virtual reality presents a unique opportunity for advertisers to reach a completely immersed audience.[71] Companies such as Paramount Pictures, Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Disney, The North Face[72] and Innis & Gunn[73] have applied VR into marketing campaigns.[74][75] Non-profit organizations such as Amnesty International, UNICEF, and World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) have used virtual reality to bring potential supporters closer to their work, effectively bringing distant social, political and environmental issues and projects to members of the public in immersive ways not possible with traditional media. Panoramic 360 views of conflict in Syria[76] and face to face encounters with CGI tigers in Nepal[77] have been used in experiential activations and shared online for educational and fundraising purposes.

Lowe's, IKEA, Wayfair and other retailers have developed systems that allow their products to be seen in virtual reality, to give consumers a better idea of how the product will fit into their home, or to allow the consumer to get a better look at the product from home.[78] Consumers looking at digital photos of the products can "turn" the product around virtually, and see it from the side or the back.

Several companies develop software or services that allow architectural design firms and real estate clients to tour virtual models of proposed building designs. During the design process, architects can use VR to experience the designs they are working on before they are built. Seeing a design in VR can give architect a correct sense of scale and proportion.[79] VR models can replace physical miniatures to demonstrate a design to clients or the public. Developers and owners can create VR model of built spaces that allow potential buyers or tenants to tour a space in VR, even if real-life circumstances make a physical tour unfeasible.

In July 2015, OnePlus became the first company to launch a product via virtual reality.[80]

In fiction and popular culture

The main article for this category is Virtual reality in fiction

There have been many novels that reference and describe forms of virtual reality. Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash (1992) and Ernest Cline's Ready Player One (2011) are novels that have been influential for VR engineers working in the early 21st century.[7]

In the 1980s and 1990s, Cyberpunks viewed the technology as a potential means for social change. The recreational drug subculture praised virtual reality not only as a new art form, but as an entirely new frontier.[40]

Concerns and challenges

Virtual reality technology faces a number of challenges, including health and safety, privacy and technical issues. Long-term effects of virtual reality on vision and neurological development are unknown; users might become disoriented in a purely virtual environment, causing balance issues; computer latency might affect the simulation, providing a less-than-satisfactory end-user experience; navigating the non-virtual environment (if the user is not confined to a limited area) might prove dangerous without external sensory information. There have been rising concerns that with the advent of virtual reality, some users may experience virtual reality addiction.[81] From an economic and financial perspective, early entrants to the virtual reality market may spend a significant amount of time and money on the technology. If it is not adopted by enough customers, the investment will not pay off.[82]

Health and safety

There are many health and safety considerations of virtual reality. Most virtual reality systems come with consumer warnings, including: seizures; developmental issues in children; trip-and-fall and collision warnings; discomfort; repetitive stress injury; and interference with medical devices.[83]

A number of unwanted symptoms have been caused by prolonged use of virtual reality,[84] and these may have slowed proliferation of the technology. Virtual reality sickness (also known as cybersickness) occurs when a person's exposure to a virtual environment causes symptoms that are similar to motion sickness symptoms.[85] The most common symptoms are general discomfort, headache, stomach awareness, nausea, vomiting, pallor, sweating, fatigue, drowsiness, disorientation, and apathy.[86] Other symptoms include postural instability and retching.[86] Virtual reality sickness is different from motion sickness in that it can be caused by the visually induced perception of self-motion; real self-motion is not needed.[85] It is also different from simulator sickness; non-virtual reality simulator sickness tends to be characterized by oculomotor disturbances, whereas virtual reality sickness tends to be characterized by disorientation.[87] A 2016 publication assessed the effects of exposure to 2D vs 3D dissection videos on nine pathology resident physicians, using self-reported physiologic symptoms. Watching the content in 3D vs 2D did not increase simulator sickness. Although the average simulator sickness questionnaire score did increase with time, statistical analysis does not suggest significance.[88]


The persistent tracking required by all VR systems makes the technology particularly useful for, and vulnerable to, mass surveillance. The expansion of VR will increase the potential and reduce the costs for information gathering of personal actions, movements and responses.[7] In networked VR spaces with capacity for public interaction, there is the potential for unexpected modifications of the environment.[82]

Conceptual and philosophical concerns

Hummmmm, there are conceptual, and philosophical considerations and implications associated with the use of virtual reality!

What the phrase "virtual reality" means or refers to can be ambiguous. Mychilo S. Cline argued in 2005 that through virtual reality techniques will be developed to influence human behavior, interpersonal communication, and cognition.[89][90][91]

In the book The Metaphysics of Virtual Reality by Michael R. Heim, seven different concepts of virtual reality are identified:

  • simulation
  • interaction
  • artificiality
  • immersion,
  • telepresence
  • full-body immersion, and
  • network communication.

As we spend more and more time in virtual space, there could be a gradual "migration to virtual space", resulting in important changes in economics, worldview, and culture.[92] Philosophical implications of VR are discussed in books, including Philip Zhai's Get Real: A Philosophical Adventure in Virtual Reality (1998) and Digital Sensations: Space, Identity and Embodiment in Virtual Reality (1999), written by Ken Hillis.

Pioneers and notables

Commercial industries

The companies working in the virtual reality sector fall broadly into three categories of involvement: hardware (making headsets and input devices specific to VR), software (producing software for interfacing with the hardware or for delivering content to users) and content creation (producing content, whether interactive or passive storylines, games, and artificial worlds, for consumption and exploration with VR hardware).

See also


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General references

  • Choi, SangSu, Kiwook Jung, and Sang Do Noh. "Virtual reality applications in manufacturing industries: Past research, present findings, and future directions." Concurrent Engineering (2015): 1063293X14568814.

Inline citations

  • Kulkarni, S.D.; Minor, M.A.; Deaver, M.W.; Pardyjak, E.R.; Hollerbach, J.M.Design, Sensing, and Control of a Scaled Wind Tunnel for Atmospheric Display, Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on, vol.17, no.4, pp. 635–645, Aug. 2012
  • Blascovich, J Bailenson, J. Infinite Reality: Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds, and the Dawn of the Virtual Revolution, Harper Collins, 2011.
  • TechCast Article Series, Mateo Fernandez, Metaverse
  • TechCast Article Series, Aaron Druck, When will Virtual Reality become reality?
  • Brooks Jr, F. P. (1999). "What's Real About Virtual Reality?" (PDF). IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. 19 (6): 16. doi:10.1109/38.799723. 
  • Burdea, G. and P. Coffet (2003). Virtual Reality Technology, Second Edition. Wiley-IEEE Press.
  • Genovese, Paolo Vincenzo (2005). Dalla Decostruzione alla Cyber-Architettura e oltre. L'uso del computer nella progettazione degli spazi non-euclidei. Liguori Editore, Napoli. In Italian.
  • Goslin, M; Morie, J. F. (1996). "Virtopia" Emotional experiences in Virtual Environments". Leonardo. 29 (2): 95–100. doi:10.2307/1576338. 
  • Oliver Grau, (2003) Virtual Art: From Illusion to Immersion (Leonardo Book Series). Cambridge/Massachusetts: MIT-Press.
  • Hayward V, Astley OR, Cruz-Hernandez M, Grant D, Robles-De-La-Torre G. Haptic interfaces and devices. Sensor Review 24(1), pp. 16–29 (2004).
  • Hillis, Ken (1999). Digital Sensations: Space, Identity and Embodiment in Virtual Reality. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
  • Kalawsky, R. S. (1993). The Science of Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments: A Technical, Scientific and Engineering Reference on Virtual Environments, Addison-Wesley, Wokingham, England ; Reading, Massachusetts
  • Kelly, K., A. Heilbrun and B. Stacks (1989). "Virtual Reality; an Interview with Jaron Lanier", Whole Earth Review, Fall 1989, no. 64, pp. 108(12)
  • Klein. D, D. Rensink, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, H. Böse, & M. Baumann — Modelling the Response of a Tactile Array using an Electrorheological Fluids – Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol 37, no. 5, pp794–803, 2004
  • Klein. D, H. Freimuth, G.J. Monkman, S. Egersdörfer, A. Meier, H. Böse M. Baumann, H. Ermert & O.T. Bruhns — Electrorheological Tactile Elements. Mechatronics – Vol 15, No 7, pp883–897 – Pergamon, September 2005.
  • Krueger, Myron (1991). Artificial Reality II, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts
  • Lanier, Jaron; Biocca, F. (1992). "An Insider's View of the Future of Virtual Reality". Journal of Communication. 42 (4): 150. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.1992.tb00816.x. 
  • Monkman. G.J. ‑ An Electrorheological Tactile Display ‑ Presence (Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments) ‑ Vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 219–228, MIT Press, July 1992.
  • Monkman. G.J. - 3D Tactile Image Display – Sensor Review – Vol 13, issue 2, pp. 27–31, MCB University Press, April 1993.
  • Joseph Nechvatal, Immersive Ideals / Critical Distances. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009
  • Rheingold, Howard (1992). Virtual Reality, Simon & Schuster, New York, N.Y.
  • Robinett, Warren (1994). "Interactivity and Individual Viewpoint in Shared Virtual worlds: The Big Screen vs. Networked Personal Displays". Computer Graphics. 28 (2): 127. doi:10.1145/178951.178969. 
  • Robles-De-La-Torre G. The Importance of the Sense of Touch in Virtual and Real Environments. IEEE Multimedia 13(3), Special issue on Haptic User * Interfaces for Multimedia Systems, pp. 24–30 (2006).
  • Roudavski, S. (2010). Virtual Environments as Techno-Social Performances: Virtual West Cambridge Case-Study, in CAADRIA2010: New Frontiers, the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, ed. by Bharat Dave, Andrew I-kang Li, Ning Gu and Hyoung-June Park, pp. 477–486
  • Mel Slater and Martin Usoh (1993). "The Influence of a Virtual Body on Presence in Immersive Virtual Environments" Virtual Reality International 93, Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Virtual Reality, London, April 1993, pages 34–42. Meckler, 1993
  • Stanney, K. M. ed. (2002). Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, New Jersey
  • Sutherland, Ivan (1965). "The Ultimate Display" (PDF). Proceedings of IFIP 65. 2: 506–508. 
  • Warwick, K., Gray, J. and Roberts, D. eds. (1993). Virtual Reality in Engineering, Peter Peregrinus.
  • Zhai, Philip. (1998). Get Real: A Philosophical adventure in Virtual Reality, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, New York and Oxford.

Haptic technology‎ (1 C, 20 P) Virtual reality headsets‎ (1 C, 16 P)

   Holography‎ (4 C, 62 P)


   Mixed reality‎ (4 C, 48 P)


   Virtual reality organizations‎ (1 C, 10 P)


Virtual reality pioneers‎ (37 P)

   Psychoacoustics‎ (19 P)


   Ray tracing (graphics)‎ (1 C, 8 P)


Virtual avatars‎ (1 C, 16 P) Virtual economies‎ (1 C, 68 P, 2 F) Virtual reality communities‎ (3 C, 63 P) Virtual reality games‎ (5 C, 15 P)

   Virtual reality in fiction‎ (7 C, 118 P)


   Virtual reality works‎ (1 C, 18 P)

Pages in category "Virtual reality"

The following 200 pages are in this category, out of approximately 225 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more). (previous page) (next page) 0–9

   3D stereo view
   3D user interaction
   360-degree video


   A-Frame (virtual reality framework)
   Advanced disaster management simulator
   Affective haptics
   AGX Multiphysics
   Amateur flight simulation
   Amazon Lumberyard
   Amira (software)
   Aphelion (software)
   Artificial Reality
   Avatar (computing)
   Avizo (software)


   BattleTech Centers
   Brain–computer interface
   Bump mapping


   CAREN (system)
   Cave automatic virtual environment
   Collaborative virtual environment
   Comparison of retail head-mounted displays
   Computer simulation
   Cortical modem
   Cover system
   Cyberith Virtualizer


   Char Davies
   Digital environment
   Digital Molecular Matter
   Draw distance


   Endocentric environment
   Enterprise Dynamics
   Environmental Audio Extensions


   Flight simulator
   FORAN System
   Fork Particle
   Foveated rendering
   Free look


   Gesture recognition
   William Gibson
   Google Street View
   Gouraud shading
   Graphics processing unit
   Graphics Turing Test
   Group VR
   Gran Turismo official steering wheel
   GT Racing Cockpit


   Haptic technology
   Havok (software)
   Head-mounted display
   Here Be Dragons (production company)
   Eric Howlett
   Hyper Reality Experience
   Hyperlinks in virtual worlds


   Id Tech 3
   Id Tech 4
   Id Tech 5
   IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
   Imagination age
   Immersion (virtual reality)
   Immersive technology
   Immersive virtual musical instrument
   Internet science
   Inverse kinematics
   Isolated brain


   Kinematic chain
   Knowledge Machine


   Lifelike experience
   Liquid Image
   List of games with EAX support


   Maritime simulator
   Methods of virtual reality
   Mirror world
   Mixed reality
   Mo-cap suit
   Motion simulator


   Michael Naimark
   NECA Project
   Normal mapping


   Object locative environment coordinate system
   Online community
   Open Cobalt
   Open Inventor
   Open Source Virtual Reality
   OZ Virtual


   Pac-Man VR
   Tony Parisi (software developer)
   Particle system
   Peripheral nerve interface
   Persistent world
   Mark Pesce
   Physical computing
   Pointman (user interface)
   Polygon mesh
   Polynomial texture mapping
   Positional tracking
   Power Glove
   Presence (telepresence)
   Procedural animation


   QuickTime VR


   Ray tracing (graphics)
   Reality–virtuality continuum
   Red Planet (game)
   Redbird Flight Simulations
   Redirected walking
   Zach Richter
   Room scale


   Sairento VR
   Sculpted prim
   Sensorial transposition
   Robert J. Sexton
   Simulation hypothesis
   George Smoot
   Social presence theory
   Stroker Serpentine
   Surgery simulator
   Surround sound


   Richard J. Terrile
   Three-dimensional virtual tourism
   Train simulator
   Transformed social interaction
   TreadPort Active Wind Tunnel
   Ty Girlz
   Typhoon (simulator)


   Unreal Engine
   Use of technology in treatment of mental disorders
   User interface


   Video game rehabilitation
   Virtual acoustic space
   Virtual art
   Virtual artifact
   Virtual avatar
   Virtual body
   Virtual Boy
   Virtual cocoon
   Virtual community
   Virtual Desktop
   Virtual engineering
   Virtual environment software
   Virtual fixture
   Virtual globe
   Virtual graffiti
   Virtual heritage
   Virtual intelligence
   Virtual reality
   Virtual reality cue reactivity
   Virtual reality in fiction
   Virtual reality in primary education
   Virtual reality in telerehabilitation
   Virtual Reality in the Schools
   Virtual reality roller coaster
   Virtual reality sickness
   Virtual reality simulator
   Virtual reality therapy
   Virtual Reality Website